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Household Medication Chart

Some of this is by the Oklahoma Poison Control Center and so is geared specifically towards pests endemic to this area. The last few links are generally applicable.

Snakes and Spiders, etc.

Snake Bite First Aid

Spider Bite First Aid

Tick Bite First Aid and Info

Poisonous Plants

Poisoning First Aid

Identifying North American Venomous Snakes

Wilderness Survival

AKC Poisonous Plant Guide (hard to read, but lots of info)

Shocking Snake Bites I

Shocking Snake Bites II

Common Poisonous Plants
(^ trouble reading this? try right-clicking and save to your own computer, you'll be able to zoom in on it ^)
More Common Poisonous Plants

About Parvo:
Parvo virus causes severe intestinal tract disease in dogs. Parvo first appeared in 1978 and quickly spread all over the world, now being famous as one of the most contagious and deadly diseases in the dog population.

How Common is Parvo?
Parvo virus is an epidemic worldwide, especially in metropolitan areas and regions where vaccination programs are sporadic.

What are the Initial Signs of Parvo?
The classic symptoms of Parvo are severe vomiting and diarrhea (often with blood in it along with extreme weakness and dehydration. Parvo literally destroys the lining of the GI tract, allowing bacteria to infect the bloodstream (a serious condition called septicemia). On those occasions when puppies (and sometimes adult dogs) die from Parvo its usually due to the combined effects of dehydration, upset in the pH balance of the bloodstream, and septicemia. The symptoms of Parvo are remarkably similar to, and as serious as, those of people with radiation sickness (such as from nuclear fallout) with the difference being that recovery is usually complete (meaning with no lasting side effects) in those puppies who recover from Parvo.

Although veterinary medicine has made tremendous progress in the treatment of Parvo in recent years and many puppies are being saved, Parvo should still be considered an extremely serious and often fatal disease.

How is Parvo Diagnosed?
Parvo is diagnosed on the basis of patient history clinical signs and laboratory tests. The two common laboratory tests used to diagnose Parvo are (1) the fecal Parvo CITE test and (2) the Complete Blood Cell count (often called the CBC). Through the fecal Parvo CITE test we are looking directly for the presence of the virus in the patient’s stool. Through the Complete Blood Cell count (CBC) we are looking at characteristic changes in the numbers of white blood cells which indicate a viral disease.

How is Parvo Virus Transmitted?
Dogs acquire infection with Parvo virus by ingesting (meaning to swallow) the infectious virus particles. The Parvo virus is one of the hardiest viruses known to science and this virus can live outside the body in a dormant yet infectious state hr one to two years. Puppies do not have to be in direct contact with other dogs to catch Parvo since the virus can be spread by people’s clothing, shoes, and other inanimate surfaces, and can even travel on the dust in the air. A dog (or puppy) who is shedding the Parvo virus can defecate (go to the bathroom) on a surface and then a susceptible puppy can come by and sniff or lick this surface over a year later and can still catch Parvo.

How is Parvo Treated?
As with the common cold virus in humans, we have no medication which works directly against the Parvo virus itself Our therapy, therefore, is directed at providing as much supportive care as possible until the virus has ‘˜run its course’. Parvo is usually treated by administering fluids, antibiotic injections, and medications designed to curb vomiting and diarrhea. In many cases, successful therapy requires around-the-clock intensive care hospitilaziton.

What is the Prognosis for a Case of Parvo?
The prognosis varies from case to case with the prognosis always being at best guarded.
Factors which generally affect the progress are:
(1) breed of dog (Dobermans, Rott and toy breed dogs have a harder time recovering)
(2) age of the dog (young puppies have a harder time recovering than do older puppies and adults)
(3) vaccination status (those dogs who have had at least some exposure to vaccine - no matter now inadequate - usually fare better)
(4) promptness of intensive care (those who receive fluids and medications immediately will fare better than those who don’t).

How is Parvo Prevented?
The best way to prevent Parvo is through adequate vaccination. Adequate vaccination begins before birth which means the mother dog should be current on her vaccinations at the time she gives birth because the puppy acquires its first immunity toward Parvo from the antibodies it receives from its mother (called Passive Transfer of immunity). Then it’s important that the puppy receive an initial vaccination against Parvo early in life, followed by the full series of puppy boosters.

As an example, I vaccinate puppies with a Parvo vaccine at 6 weeks followed by a booster at 9. 12, 15, and 18 weeks. Then the puppy (dog) should receive a booster once yearly thereafter. The age when the puppy series is begun and the number of boosters given will vary with your particular circumstances based on what type of vaccine is being used, the local Parvo situation in your area and other factors so be sure to check with your regular veterinarian to see when this series is begun and what boosters are involved.

The main thing to remember in this regard is that the puppy series for Parvo is begun very early (usually around 6 weeks).

What if the Puppy does not Receive or Stay on the Vaccination Program?
It has been my experience with Parvo that if a good vaccination schedule is not adopted or adhered to then the puppy is at greatly increased risk of acquiring Parvo.

What are Other Ways to Prevent the Spread of Parvo?
Common disinfectants (such as Listerine, Lysol, alcohol, etc) will not kill Parvo. The only things which will kill Parvo outright are fire (burning contaminated blankets, newspapers, etc), dilute Clorox solution (1 part Clorox to 32 parts water) and quaternary/disinfectant solutions listed specifically for Parvo virus.

Can My Cat Catch Parvo?
No, cats cannot catch Parvo from a dog or any other source. However, cats are susceptible to another similar disease called Feline Panleukopenia (also called Feline Distemper) which is closely related to Parvo. We have a vaccination for Feline Panleukopenia (often called the Feline Distemper shot).

How can I Learn More about Parvo Virus?
Consult your local veterinarian and they’ll be glad to tell you more!

 

Most dog bite wounds are caused by the family pet, or a neighbor’s dog, not the stray dog. Most bite wounds are facial and are a potential source of infection. There are 10 commandments to use to prevent a dog bite from occurring. These 10 commandments for dog bite prevention are:

  • DO - Children should be properly educated on the treatment of dogs. They should be taught to never disturb a dog while it is sleeping or eating. They should never mistreat, tease, or try to take away food or toys from the dog. They should also never pet or play with a dog or animal that they do not know.

  • DO - Your child should be at least 6 years old before you consider buying a dog. This is especially true with the larger breeds of dogs. When considering the purchase of a dog, investigate the breeder and background of the dog thoroughly. Always go to a reputable breeder.

  • DO - Provide proper adult supervision whenever small children are around dogs including the family pet. The adult presence will aid in inhibiting any threatening or aggressive behavior from the dog directed at the child.

  • DO - Learn and obey the dog laws in your area. Most areas have a leash law to prevent injuries to your dog as well as humans. Keep your dog on a leash and do not permit a young person to lead a large dog. A loose dog has a tendency to be more aggressive when in the general vicinity of their homes and with their owners.

  • DO - Dog ownership is a privilege and a responsibility. As a dog owner, you are given the privilege of having a loyal companion, and a best friend to share your life with. You also have a responsibility to your dog and your neighbors. Your responsibility to your neighbors is to not keep aggressive dogs in a residential area, and to ensure that fences are adequate to prevent easy access by small children.

  • DO - Make sure that your dog is kept current on all vaccinations. This is especially true about a rabies vaccination - It’s the Law

  • DON’T - If attacked do not try to out run, kick at, or scream at the dog. This will only intensify the dogs attacking excitement especially when a large group of dogs are involved. The best preventative is to stand still and turn side ways. This will give the dog a smaller target to aim for. If this fails, try giving the dog your jacket or some other object to bite. An attacking dog is not particular about what it is biting.
  • DO - Try to avoid territorial invasions. An attacking dog is usually protecting it’s territory.

  • DO - If you are bitten by a dog, try to remember a description, the location, and a possible owner. This will assist authorities in identifying the dog to determine the vaccination records or allowing for testing to determine the health of the dog. Wash the wound thoroughly with lots of soapy water. Always report the bite to proper authorities, especially if the owner is unknown to you, and seek medical attention.

  • DO - Reduce the risk of dangerous encounters by providing an educational program for potential victims. Promote in schools and groups public awareness of dog bite prevention and treatment of wounds. These programs will reduce the incidence of encounters which could result in maiming, death, and unnecessary doctor bills.

YOU INCREASE YOUR ODDS WHEN YOU BUY FROM A REPUTABLE BREEDER.

HERE’S HOW:

1. Don’t buy on impulse. Be sure you understand the breed, it’s personality, and the demands it will make. Read books, magazines, attend a dog show, seek advice from veterinarians, dog clubs, trainers and breeders. Try to find someone with the type of breed you are thinking about and ask them questions.

2. Contact breeders through magazine ads, vets, and dog clubs. Look for someone who looks to improve the line of dogs they own. That person should interview you as carefully as you are them. Look for honest answers, caring advice, open invitations to visit, and a helpful attitude. Also look for someone who isn’t afraid to have a veterinarian of your choice look over the pup you are thinking of buying.

3. Can you meet the sire and dam? Other puppies from the same parents, or closely related? Are these relatives intelligent, energetic, friendly, gorgeous, or whatever matters to you. Is the mother at least two years old or older? Has it been more than one heat in between the litters? Are the pups raised from birth with plenty of handling for socialization? Are they raised with children or other animals? Are they still with their mother (if under 6 weeks)? Are there other references they can give you?

4. Does the breeder show dogs, or compete with their dogs in some way (obedience, weight pull, etc)? Do they participate in dog clubs or perhaps judge dog shows. The more they do the more knowledgeable they will be.

5. A good pedigree does not guarantee a good puppy, but a good variety of show ribbons, obedience titles or working titles of the parents and relatives improve the odds of a well rounded puppy.

6. Has the breeder prepared a contract? Are the puppies guaranteed? What if you can’t keep the dog? Good hobby breeders stand by their dogs with health and temperament guarantees. If something goes wrong these people will want their dog back. Look at the contract carefully.

7. Trust your intuition. Does the breeder offer excuses instead of straight answer? Do you dislike the sire or dam? If there is anything you don’t like about the breeder, the puppies, the parents, or anything else walk away. All of the breeders I’ve talked to agreed with this. Never buy a puppy on impulse. Do not buy a puppy because you feel sorry for it, there are plenty of puppies, be sure before you buy.

Benefits: Panacur acts as an immune system stimulant (by stimulating the bone marrow); it is antifungal and a gut astringent. It is a very effective treatment for ulcers of the esophagus, stomach and gut. It can also act as a facilitator for antibiotics and white blood cells to penetrate scar tissue and chronically infected tissue.

What: Treating the dog with a dose of Panacur (fenbendazole 10%, 100mg/g) at a rate of 1g per 10 lbs. a day for 3 days. Then repeat the 3 day protocol in two weeks. The powder can be mixed with wet food, yogurt or by adding water and dosing directly or mixing this solution with dry food.

When: Given at least twice a year. Can be given each month for 3 days for persistent problems.

Indications: For the control of roundworms, hookworms, whipworms and some types of tapeworms. Panacur is particularly effective against Giardia, chronic low-grade Candida yeast and many fungal infections.

Side Effects: Some dogs may have vomiting and nausea. If the dog is infested with a lot of worms, it may have diarrhea, but this is rare.

My old Danny Boy dog actually had RMSF a few years back. I had to push for them to send out a tick panel though, as it doesn't show on a regular vet run tick screen. His symptoms were sudden onset joint swelling and troubled/painful (? - since dogs don't talk and danny didn't whine, I was never sure if it was difficult or painful) walking. One vet tech tried to suggest it was arthritis but arthritis does not just happen literally overnight. The panel came back with a positive titer for RMSF. It required a 6 or 8 week run of doxycycline as I recall. So it's something to watch out for in both ourselves and our dogs.

crossposted from an ogba newsletter:

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever


Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a serious, generalized illness that is usually spread by the bite of an infected tick.

Anyone who is exposed to areas where ticks live or to pets with ticks is at risk for Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

Rocky Mountain spotted fever is treatable with antibiotics. Without treatment, the disease can be fatal.

Rocky Mountain spotted fever can be prevented by: 1) avoiding tick bites, 2) removing attached ticks promptly, and 3) getting early diagnosis and treatment.


What is Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a serious, generalized infection that is usually spread to people by the bite of infected ticks. The disease gets its name from the Rocky Mountain area where it was first identified.

What is the infectious agent that causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever?

Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, a specialized bacteria. Ticks infected with the organism transmit the disease to humans.

Where is Rocky Mountain spotted fever found?
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is found throughout the United States, except in Maine, Alaska, and Hawaii. Despite the name, few cases are reported from the Rocky Mountain region. Most cases occur in the southeastern United States.

Rocky Mountain spotted fever is spread by the American dog tick, the lone-star tick, and the wood tick, all of which like to live in wooded areas and tall, grassy fields. The disease is most common in the spring and summer when these ticks are active, but it can occur anytime during the year when the weather is warm.

How do people get Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
People get Rocky Mountain spotted fever from the bite of an infected tick or by contamination of the skin with the contents of an attached tick when it is removed from the skin. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is not spread from person to person, except rarely by blood transfusion.

What are the signs and symptoms of Rocky Mountain spotted fever?

People with Rocky Mountain spotted fever get a sudden fever (which can last for 2 or 3 weeks), severe headache, tiredness, deep muscle pain, chills, nausea, and a characteristic rash. The rash might begin on the legs or arms, can include the soles of the feet or palms of the hands, and can spread rapidly to the trunk or the rest of the body.

How soon after exposure do symptoms appear?
Symptoms usually begin 3 to 12 days after a tick bite.

How is Rocky Mountain spotted fever diagnosed?
The disease is diagnosed by special blood tests.

Who is at risk for Rocky Mountain spotted fever?

Anyone who is exposed to tick-infested areas or to tick-infested pets is at risk for Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

What complications can result from Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
Without prompt medical care, kidney failure and shock can lead to death.

What is the treatment for Rocky Mountain spotted fever?

Rocky Mountain spotted fever must be treated with antibiotics. Many people with the disease need to be hospitalized.

How common is Rocky Mountain spotted fever?
Rocky Mountain spotted fever affects about 800 persons in the United States each year.

Is Rocky Mountain spotted fever a new or emerging infectious disease?
No. However, because of the seriousness of the disease, continued efforts are needed to increase awareness and encourage prevention.

How can Rocky Mountain spotted fever be prevented?
No vaccine is available to protect humans against Rocky Mountain spotted fever. The best way to avoid getting the disease is to avoid areas such as the woods or fields where ticks are found. If this is not possible, you can reduce your risk by taking these precautions:

Control the tick population on your property. Keep pets tick-free. Mow grass often in yards and outside fences.

During outside activities in wooded areas and around tall grass, wear long sleeves and long pants tucked into socks.

Use insecticides to repel or kill ticks. Repellents containing the compound DEET can be used on exposed skin except for the face, but they do not kill ticks and are not 100% effective in discouraging ticks from biting. Products containing permethrin kill ticks, but they cannot be used on the skin -- only on clothing. When using any of these chemicals, follow label directions carefully. Be especially cautious when using them on children.

After outdoor activities, check yourself for ticks, and have a "buddy" check you, too. Check body areas where ticks are commonly found: behind the knees, between the fingers and toes, under the arms, in and behind the ears, and on the neck, hairline, and top of the head. Check places where clothing presses on skin.

Remove attached ticks immediately. Removing a tick before it has been attached for more than 4 hours greatly reduces the risk of infection. Use tweezers, and grab as closely to the skin as possible. Do not handle ticks with bare hands. Do not try to remove ticks by squeezing them, coating them with petroleum jelly, or burning them with a match.

After removing the tick, thoroughly disinfect the bite site, and wash your hands. See or call a doctor if you think that tick parts may remain in your skin. If you get a fever, headache, rash, or nausea within 2 weeks of a possible tick bite or exposure, see a doctor right away.

Originally posted September 22, 2005. I haven't heard anything else about this, but it's something to bear in mind.

A New Deadly, Contagious Dog Flu Virus Is Detected in 7 States

By DONALD G. McNEIL Jr. and CARIN RUBENSTEIN

A new, highly contagious and sometimes deadly canine flu is spreading in kennels and at dog tracks around the country, veterinarians said yesterday.

The virus, which scientists say mutated from an influenza strain that affects horses, has killed racing greyhounds in seven states and has been found in shelters and pet shops in many places, including the New York suburbs, though the extent of its spread is unknown.

Dr. Cynda Crawford, an immunologist at the University of Florida's College of Veterinary Medicine who is studying the virus, said that it spread most easily where dogs were housed together but that it could also be passed on the street, in dog runs or even by a human transferring it from one dog to another. Kennel workers have carried the virus home with them, she said.

How many dogs die from the virus is unclear, but scientists said the fatality rate is more than 1 percent and could be as high as 10 percent among puppies and older dogs.

Dr. Crawford first began investigating greyhound deaths in January 2004 at a racetrack in Jacksonville, Fla., where 8 of the 24 greyhounds who contracted the virus died.

"This is a newly emerging pathogen," she said, "and we have very little information to make predictions about it. But I think the fatality rate is between 1 and 10 percent."

She added that because dogs had no natural immunity to the virus, virtually every animal exposed would be infected. About 80 percent of dogs that are infected with the virus will develop symptoms, Dr. Crawford said. She added that the symptoms were often mistaken for "kennel cough," a common canine illness that is caused by the bordetella bronchiseptica bacteria.

Both diseases can cause coughing and gagging for up to three weeks, but dogs with canine flu may spike fevers as high as 106 degrees and have runny noses. A few will develop pneumonia, and some of those cases will be fatal. Antibiotics and fluid cut the pneumonia fatality rate, Dr. Crawford said.

The virus is an H3N8 flu closely related to an equine flu strain. It is not related to typical human flus or to the H5N1 avian flu that has killed about 100 people in Asia.

Experts said there were no known cases of the canine flu infecting humans. "The risk of that is low, but we are keeping an eye on it," said Dr. Ruben Donis, chief of molecular genetics for the influenza branch of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which is tracking the illness.

But with the approach of the human flu season and fears about bird flu in Asia, there is much confusion among some dog owners who have heard about the disease.

Dr. Crawford said she was fielding calls from kennels and veterinarians across the country worried that they were having outbreaks.

"The hysteria out there is unbelievable, and the misinformation is incredible," said Dr. Ann E. Hohenhaus, chief of medicine at the Animal Medical Center in New York.

Dr. Hohenhaus said she had heard of an alert from a Virginia dog club reporting rumors that 10,000 show dogs had died.

"We don't believe that's true," she said, adding that no dogs in her Manhattan hospital even had coughs.

Dr. Donis of the disease control centers said that there was currently no vaccine for the canine flu. But he said one would be relatively easy to develop. The canine flu is less lethal than parvovirus, which typically kills puppies but can be prevented by routine vaccination.

Laboratory tests, Dr. Donis said, have shown that the new flu is susceptible to the two most common antiviral drugs, amantidine and Tamiflu, but those drugs are not licensed for use in dogs.

The flu has killed greyhounds at tracks in Florida, Massachusetts, Arizona, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Texas and Iowa. Tracks and kennels have been forced to shut down for weeks for disinfection.

In Chestnut Ridge, north of New York City, about 88 dogs became sick by early September, and 15 percent of those required hospitalization, said Debra Bennetts, a spokeswoman for Best Friends Pet Care, a chain of boarding kennels. The kennel was vacated for decontamination by Sept. 17.

About 17 of the infected dogs were treated at the Oradell Animal Hospital in Paramus, N.J., where one died and two more were still hospitalized, a staff veterinarian said.

The Best Friends chain owns 41 other kennels in 18 states, and no others have had an outbreak, Dr. Larry J. Nieman, the company's veterinarian, said.

In late July, at Gracelane Kennels in Ossining, N.Y., about 35 dogs showed symptoms, said the owner, Bob Gatti, and he closed the kennel for three weeks to disinfect.

About 25 of the dogs were treated by an Ossining veterinarian, Glenn M. Zeitz, who said two of them had died.

"The dogs came in very sick, with high fevers and very high white blood cell counts," Dr. Zeitz said, making him suspicious that they had something worse than kennel cough.

A spokesman for the New York City Health Department said that there were "a few confirmed cases" in New York but that the city was not yet tracking the disease.

Veterinarians voluntarily sent samples to the Animal Health Diagnostic Center at the Cornell School of Veterinary Medicine, which was the only laboratory doing blood tests.

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/22/national/22canine.html

Thanks to my friend with finedogs for passing this on...

http://www.mmilani.com/commentary-200509.html

Spay, Neuter, and Cancer: Revisiting and Old Trinity

Perhaps no aspect of pet ownership in the U.S. elicits as passionately supportive emotions as the subject of spay and neuter. In fact, this orientation is so well established that saying anything that questions the procedure is akin to blasphemy. However, just as women were routinely relieved of their reproductive organs with a "La de da, you'll never miss 'em" attitude until studies exploring the nonreproductive effects of reproductive hormones made human physicians rethink this position, so veterinarians and other animal-care professionals are making tentative moves to rethink wholesale sterilization of companion animals, too.

To understand what difference this may make in our attitudes about the procedure, let's consider the subject of cancer. Most dog owners have heard that spay and neuter prevent testicular and mammary (breast) cancer: however is that the whole story relative to cancer or is there more to it?

Obviously, if we remove a dog's testicles, there's no way he'll develop testicular cancer. On the other hand, most dogs who develop testicular cancer respond well to castration, so the advantages of preventive surgery are perhaps not as great as one might expect. Although intact (unsterilized) females have a higher incidence of mammary cancer, the dog's weight plays an important role in the process: intact females who are lean at one year of age have a lower incidence of the disease compared to their chunky cohorts.

In an interesting article in the August Veterinary Practice News entitled "Can we neuter cancer in dogs?" veterinary oncologist Kevin Hahn opens by saying that, after reviewing studies reported over the last 30 years, he's not sure what to recommend to his clients. Like most veterinarians, Dr Hahn mentions the higher incidence of testicular and mammary cancer in intact animals, but also notes that spayed females have a 4 times greater risk of cardiac hemangiosarcomas, and neutered males also show a significant increased risk for this cancer compared to intact ones.

Another cancer Dr Hahn discusses that deserves mention is prostate cancer because a lot of people erroneously believe that castration prevents this. In reality, it does not. In fact, castrated dogs have up to a 4 times greater risk of developing prostate cancer than intact animals. At the same time, spayed or neutered dogs have a 1.5 to 3 times greater chance of developing bladder cancer. Because of this, rectal examinations and abdominal palpation should always be part of a routine veterinary physical examination.

The link between sterilization and osteosarcoma (i.e. bone cancer) is also troubling: Spayed and neutered animals are twice as likely to develop this cancer. Those spayed or castrated before their first birthdays had a roughly 1 in 4 lifetime risk for osteosarcoma and were significantly more likely to develop a tumor than intact dogs.

The article then goes on to discuss the role of hormones and genetic controls in cancer. All agree that there is a connection, but no one knows exactly what it is. However, in his article Dr Hahn discusses a study done by Dr David Felman (and published in the June Nature) that I find intriguing because of how it may relate to the role the animal's behavior and his/her relationship with the owner plays in cancer. In a very tiny nutshell, the study looked at two gene mutations that lead the stress hormones cortisol and cortisone to trigger the growth of later stage cancer cells.

Because cortisol is also one of the hormones that's elevated when stress results in animal behavioral problems which, in turn, may result from human-animal relationship ones, it would seem that avoiding such elevations of this hormone by treating bond and behavioral problems could conceivably lower the probability of cancer in some animals, or improve the survival chances of those already afflicted with the disease. Although such a hypothesis might seem to require too great a leap of credibility for those who associate cortisol and cortisone with those drugs that counter inflammation and itching, another effect of these hormones is that they undermine the immune response. So while they may benefit animals who encounter occasional stresses of brief duration, these same substances may seriously undermine the health of those who daily live in stressful environments. In that case, not only will these animals have a higher probability of developing stress-related behavioral and medical problems (such as aggression or separation anxiety displays, irritable bowel syndrome or chronic or recurring urinary tract conditions), these animals' taxed immune response may experience more difficulty recognizing and dispatching mutant cells before they multiply and form cancers.

Currently the exploration of the nonreproductive effects of sex hormones is in its infancy and, unlike the rise of feminism which challenged the philosophy underlying hysterectomy and ovariohysterectomy in women, many of those who normally claim to speak for the animals are usually quiet about how sterilization may affect companion animals. Like Dr Hahn, I, too, have reviewed the literature and am not sure what to tell clients. However, I do know that unless we can free the subject from the emotional cocoon that has protected spay and neuter from objective scrutiny all these years, our pets won't be able to benefit from the knowledge that is slowly, but surely, being generated on this subject.
Leptospirosis Reportedly on the Rise Across the Country

August 2005 (Newstream) -- A deadly disease is threatening more and more of man's best friends. Leptospirosis - a disease that causes kidney and liver damage in dogs and can lead to death - is reportedly on the rise across the nation.

Although leptospirosis isn't as well known as Lyme disease or rabies, it can be just as dangerous to dogs. Dogs can get the disease from drinking contaminated water in which other animals, like rats or raccoons, have urinated.

The key to treatment is recognizing the symptoms. Dogs with leptospirosis can experience vomiting, lethargy, anorexia, muscle pain, joint pain and jaundice.

Leptospirosis is highly preventable. Veterinary experts recommend talking to your veterinarian to find out about vaccinating your dog against the disease.

http://www.newstream.com/home.aspx?story=30824

Jumping UP (you, your children, your guests)
Jumping ON (the furniture, or tables ‘what’s for dinner?‘)
Jumping OVER (fences)

The behavior never disappears as fast as we would like. We have to remember how many weeks, months, or even years that your dog has been jumping. Please devote some patient, calm training time to this problem before you expect to see improvement. Reward every small step of success.

Jumping UP
In the teaching phase, a big part of communicating to the dog that we don’t want them to jump up to greet people is actually preventing the jump from happening. To do this, we must have a training handle - a leash. But you say, ‘my dog isn’t ON leash when she jumps.‘ This is where the people training comes in.

We know there are certain temptations that are just too great for our dogs, and in those situations they always jump up, no matter how often or how loud we have screamed ‘NO‘ or ‘DOWN!‘ In those circumstances we must think one step ahead and remember to put the dog on leash immediately.

For instance:
Speedy always greets you at the front door with any eye level leap as you step in at 5:30. If there is another family member usually home, have them attach a leash to her regular buckle collar (no special training collar needed) before you are due to arrive. If there is no one to help you, keep a leash with you or in a handy place (like the mail box) so you can reach with just your hands in the door and put it on before you completely enter.

As you step in, you are going to put your foot on the leash so that if the dog tries to jump up she can barely bounce her front feet off the ground before she feels a tug on her collar. You are going to say in a calm, quiet voice ‘OFF‘ every time her front feet leave the floor.

Loud, excited voices actually stimulate some dogs, and you are going to say ‘OFF‘ as your correction command because we may have sent mixed messages to our dogs by saying ‘NO!‘ for too many different things, or ‘DOWN‘ as in lie down and for jumping correction.

Teach your dog an alternative behavior for jumping up to greet people, by having the dog SIT when approaching friends or family members. The dog will quickly realize that she is restricted from jumping, and that trying to jump up is only resulting in collar tugs. When the dog is not receiving any feedback, no pleasant eye contact, and no touching, they will usually rock back into a sit. Try to time the ‘sit‘ command just as they are tucking their bottoms. Then praise them, pet them, give them a treat, act like it’s the best thing they’ve ever done.

You should set up practice situations several times a week to work on ‘OFF‘ and ‘SIT.‘ Have the neighborhood kids help you by having them come to the door every 10 minutes on a Saturday afternoon to give Speedy a treat for not jumping up. Or you could walk around the block and have planned for neighbors to approach you frequently so that you can use these encounters for training. Be sure to quickly place your foot on the leash, and command ‘sit‘ as people walk up, or ‘˜OFF‘ if Speedy tries to jump.

After two to three weeks of patient, diligent work, you can move from the teaching phase to the correction phase. If the dog starts to jump you should command ‘OFF.‘ If the dog doesn’t immediately put his front feet back on the floor, you may gently but swiftly push down on the dog’s shoulders to knock his front feet down. Then tug upon the collar as your command ‘sit.‘ Immediately praise with ‘good sit.‘

There are other methods for correcting the jumping dog; most of them are negative. One book details grabbing the dog’s front paws and squeezing, another says to knee the dog in the chest and knock him over backwards. I know of a dog that was once friendly that became fearfully aggressive after multiple foot squeezing episodes for just trying to welcome people in the only way she knew. I also know of a large puppy that was kneed over backwards on a deck and shattered a joint in his hind leg. Please don’t assume that everything you read in dog training books is correct or humane.

Jumping ON
Jumping on things like furniture (if you don’t want the dog to share your resting areas), or putting their front feet on tables or counter tops to steal food, is also corrected in the teaching phase with the leash.

If the dog is dragging a leash while in the house with you, and she jumps up on that forbidden white velvet chair, you can pop the leash gently and command ‘OFF.‘ Then reward with praise and an immediate treat. The leash is important, because you are not pouncing at, or grabbing for the dog. The leash allows you to stand back and motivate the dog to get off the chair on their own. The pop on the leash should not be forceful enough to drag them off the furniture, but urge them to get off. You voice should be calm and pleasant; yelling at the dog may make Speedy cower and actually clamp to the furniture in fear.

All family members must be consistent in their expectations for the dog. If one person likes the dog to jump up to lay beside them, and another corrects the dog for the same behavior, then shortly you have a confused canine probably in need of long-term therapy.

The dog that jumps on tables, etc., to steal food should be put in training situations on a daily basis for a week or two. Place a strong smelling, tasty treat on the table. Speedy should be brought to the area on leash. Point to the food and say ‘off.‘ Stand back and hold the leash or put your foot on it to correct for attempts at jumping. Once the dog is wise, drop the leash, and hide close by. If the dog attempts to jump, command ‘off,‘ step closer to the dog and say ‘sit‘ and praise. Re ward with a treat from your pocket.

You can also booby trap things on the table, like a sandwich with lots of Tabasco sauce, or a treat tied with thread to a shaker can (empty soda can with pennies inside and the hole taped shut.) The rattle of the can startles some dogs, and also lets you know that in the other room Speedy is engaged in some sneaky snacking.

Jumping OVER*
I only know of one consistent way to correct a fence jumper - let the fence do the correcting. FIDO SHOCK is a hot wire kit sold through garden and pet supply stores. You can attach this wire to any fence with insulators, or on shorter stakes just inside the fence. It emits a mildly uncomfortable shock to all of those that touch it, so turn it off when the kids are outside, or you’re doing

Dogs that jump fences have a very short life expectancy. They are often attacked by stray dogs, or killed by cars. FIDO SHOCK is very reasonably priced, uses pennies of electricity every month, and corrects your dog when you can’t stand there to make sure they don’t jump the fence. It can also be used to protect flower beds and vegetable gardens.

* pitchick says: Pit bulldogs should not be trusted to stay inside a fence, with or without an electric wire or shock collar. Covered pens or tethering are the only responsible ways to keep these dogs as they are highly tolerable of such minor pain and as said, escape is irresponsible and is likely to lead to damage of one's own or other's property and/or shortened life span.

 

Veterinarians report that as many as four out of every ten dogs may be overweight. At the root of the problem is overfeeding, coupled with lack of exercise.

How can I tell if my dog is overweight?
If you can easily feel your dog’s rib cage and can spot a waistline when viewing your dog from above, then it is not overweight. But, if there is fat over the ribs or no visible waistline, you should think about slimming your dog down. Consult a veterinarian if there is any doubt because some dogs that appear overweight may have underlying medical conditions. Check with your veterinarian before starling on any weight reduction program.


Are particular breeds predisposed to being overweight?
While some breeds such as Labrador Retrievers, Beagles, Cairn Terriers, Shetland Sheepdogs, Bassett Hounds, Cocker Spaniels, Collies, and Dachshunds may be predisposed to being overweight and others such as Afghan hounds, Whippets, Greyhounds, and Basenjis tend to be lean, excessive weight gain can be a problem for any breed.


Does being overweight cause health problems for dogs?
It can. Overweight dogs may exhibit a variety of health problems, some of which can even be potentially life threatening. These include an increased susceptibility to heat stroke and delayed recovery from surgery. We also see joint injuries and muscular difficulties, particularly as the animal gets older.

Overweight dogs also tend to have more liver and skin problems, more complications if they develop diabetes. and, possibly, an increased susceptibility to pancreatitis. All of these can shorten a dog’s life and cost the owner a lot of extra money in unnecessary medical bills.

A dog at its optimal weight is healthier, happier, more active, and a better companion. It’s best to maintain your dog at its ideal weight from the start by not overfeeding him.


Do veterinarians prescribe reducing diets for dogs?
Yes, many try to educate pet owners on the harmful effects of dog’s being overweight. We usually suggest exercise, change in feeding habits, and provide information on reduced-calorie dog foods. Most pet owners don’t have a problem with these recommendations when they realize that their dogs are satisfied and losing weight.


What kinds of reduced-calorie products are available?
Reduced-calorie products are formulated with less fat and more fiber. Since it is the fat that adds the flavor dogs love, some reduced-calorie products are less palatable than regular dog food. A weight loss program will fail if the dog refuses to eat the food. Therefore, you should choose a food that is palatable and the dog enjoys.


Can I just cut back on current rations?
That will work if you have enough willpower. Most veterinarians recommend that overweight dogs be fed about 75% of their required caloric needs to cause slow, steady weight loss. It’s often easier for owners to manage this by feeding a reduced-calorie food so the volume in the dog’s dish remains the same.


Is fiber as beneficial for dogs as it’s claimed to be for humans?
While fiber is useful in reducing the caloric content of the food, no definitive studies have shown that fiber has the additional health benefits for dogs that it does for human beings, even though some pet food manufacturers are suggesting just that.


Should a young dog go from the concentrated nutrients of puppy food to a reduced-calorie dog food as a maintenance product, rather than eating full-caloried canned or dry dog foods?
As long as the adult dog is active and not gaining weight, a full-caloried canned or dry dog food may be more appropriate, when the dog reaches ‘middle age‘ and activity level is reduced, it may be time to think about reduced-calorie dog food to keep it from gaining weight.


How will an abrupt shift in diet affect my dog?
Sometimes it can cause diarrhea. It is best to mix small amounts of the new food with your dog’s existing food. Over a week’s time, gradually add more new food and decrease amounts of the old food. This transition is less likely to upset your pet’s digestive system.


Do you have any tips for feeding to help make mealtimes easier?

Try dividing your pet’s total daily ration into three meals per day. Feeding the dieting or slimmed-down dog separately from other pets reduces ‘sharing‘. Feeding pets before family meals helps reduce tableside begging. Of course, all family members should refrain from giving the dog anything other than its specific diet.


Do you recommend specific exercises for dogs?
Dogs are readily adaptable and, depending on their age and breed, can participate in a wide range of activities. Many people associate exercise with running, but there are a lot of other things a dog can do to stay fit. Some dogs like to chase sticks or balls. Older dogs can often get enough exercise on a leash just walking with you. Smaller dogs often get all the exercise they need running around the house, yard, or apartment. Two dogs are better than one in this regard*, since they can play together.

Start any exercise regimen slowly and then work up to more vigorous activities. Be sure not to exercise your pet right after it has finished eating or drinking. Wait at least one hour.


What about dog snacks?
Snacks are fine if given as part of the dog’s total caloric intake. Snacks should only be given in moderation, especially to overweight dogs, since they may contain up to 250 calories each. Be sure to reduce the amount of dog food you normally feed the dog at its next regular meal and resist feeding sweets and fatty foods.


Can a mature dog with tendencies to become overweight be maintained indefinitely on a reduced-calorie dog food?
Yes, if the reduced-calorie food is complete and balanced for an adult dog’s maintenance needs. Read the label to be sure.

* pitchick says: this is not usually practical with pit bulldogs, unless it is a male and female, or neutered dogs, which in either case have been raised together.

What is the Thyroid Gland?
The thyroid gland is a small gland located under the skin at the center of the neck. It is regulated by a smaller gland at the base of the brain, called the pituitary gland. This gland signals the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone and regulates its blood concentration. The thyroid gland is an intricate part of your dog’s endocrine system. It can have an affect on many different phases of your dog’s health, from your dog’s coat all the way to the cell function.

Hypothyroidism
Hypothyroidism is the result of too little circulating thyroid hormone. This is normally caused by the thyroid gland ceasing to function properly. The most common cause of hypothyroidism is "Idiopathic Hypothyroidism‘ which means there is not a biological reason why the thyroid isn't working properly. Another cause of hypothyroidism is thyroiditis or inflammation of the thyroid gland. Thyroiditis is believed to be generic. Hypothyroidism can be a debilitating disease if not treated. How ever, with proper treatment your dog can live a long and happy life.

Symptoms
The clinical signs of hypothyroidism can be a loss of hair often on the tail, hind quarters or flank that is not a result of scratching. Other indications include dry scaly skin, dull brittle hair, leaching of the hair coat and possibly the development of oily skin. Advanced cases of hypothyroidism may cause your dog to become lethargic and overweight, even on a limited diet. The animal may not want to exercise, may seek out warm places and may have cold clammy skin. Breeding dogs may have a lack of libido, prolonged anestrous of shortened estrus.

Diagnosis
A blood test will be done to help confirm the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. When the blood test results are returned and the diagnosis of hypothyroidism is confirmed, your veterinarian will prescribe medication. The product of choice is levothyroxine sodium tablets. This medication must be administered once or twice a day, according to your veterinarian’s instructions. You should see an improvement in your dogs overall health in approximately two to four weeks. Changes in dog’s coat will take anywhere from one to six months, depending on the rate of new hair growth of your dog.

Follow-up
In approximately four to six weeks, your veterinarian will require another blood sample. If the results warrant a change, the dosage may be adjusted to maintain proper thyroid blood levels. When the adjustment is made you will need to refill the prescription and administer the medication to your dog according to your veterinarian’s instructions. The thyroid medication and routine check-ups will be necessary to maintain a healthy and happy dog.

From the Rabies Challenge Fund Folks:

U.S. Free of Canine Rabies Virus http://www.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUSN0741162020070907
by Maggie Fox (Health & Science Editor) September 7, 2007

"The elimination of canine rabies in the United States represents one of the major public health success stories in the last 50 years," CDC Director Dr. Julie Gerberding said in a statement.

For more information on the canine rabies vaccine http://www.RabiesChallengeFund.org/page4.html
and The Rabies Challenge Fund http://www.RabiesChallengeFund.org/about%20the%20RCF.html

Rabies Challenge Fund Reaches First-Year Goal:
http://www.mainelincolncountynews.com/index.cfm?ID=26297

Pets: Rabies vaccine research may save some pain http://www.newsday.com/search/ny-lspets5278482jul02,0,6559208.column

The Vaccine Challenge
http://www.animaltalknaturally.com:80/2007/05/01/the-vaccine-challenge-show-91/

How Often Does He REALLY Need a Rabies Shot? http://animalwellnessmagazine.com/m/m86/main.htm;

Get Out Your Wallets, Rabies Challenge Fund a Reality http://www.mainetoday.com/pets/dogslife/007915.html.

Are We Overvaccinating our Pets? http://www.spanieljournal.com/28lbaughan.html

Rabies Challenge Kicks Off Fundraiser: http://www.courierpub.com/articles/2005/10/12/lincolncountyweekly/local_news/4news.txt

Nationwide Campaign Launched to Fund Rabies Vaccine Study
http://www.mainelincolncountynews.com/index.cfm?ID=14204;

Challenging the Rabies Vaccine
http://www.newsday.com/mynews/ny-lspets4432971sep19,0,1274963.column;

The Rabies Challenge Fund http://blogs.mainetoday.com/dogslife/002976.html

Rabies Challenge Fund & Master Dog Training at the Womens Podcasting Expo - Show #42 http://www.replay-video.com/guide/index.php?start_page=http://applian.com/guide/view_podcast_details.php?show_id=2156

Anyone wishing to have a copy of the 1992 French challenge study data from a research team led by Michel Aubert in which dogs were demonstrated to be immune to a rabies challenge 5 years after vaccination, or Vascellari's study which documented cancerous tumors in dogs at presumed injection sites of rabies vaccine, please e-mail me at ledgespring@(lincoln.midcoast.com) (remove parantheses)

http://www.RabiesChallengeFund.org

TICK PARALYSIS IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS (IN AUSTRALIA)
Caused by Ixodes holocyclus (the Paralysis Tick)

1. What causes tick paralysis?
2. How do I recognize the signs of tick paralysis?
3. How can I recognize a paralysis tick?
4. When and where is my pet likely to pick up a tick?
5. What do I do if I find a tick on my pet?
6. Do animals develop immunity to the tick paralysis toxin?
7. How can I protect my pet against tick paralysis?
8. How effective is treatment of tick paralysis?
9. What do I need to do after my pet has been treated for tick paralysis?

============================================================================

1. What causes tick paralysis?

The adult female Ixodes holocyclus tick can attach to a dog or cat (the host) and burrow its mouthparts into the animal’s skin. The tick sucks the host’s blood and injects its neurotoxin (poison) into the host. On attachment this tick is quite small but it grows in size each day as it sucks blood. The toxin has several effects, most obviously acting on the animal’s muscles and respiratory (breathing) system. The host usually shows no signs of illness for about the first four days, in some cases for up to one or two weeks. However once the cat or dog starts to show signs of illness it can deteriorate quite rapidly and could die within 48 hours. It is important that veterinary treatment should be sought within 24 hours of the first signs of illness.

2. How do I recognize the signs of tick paralysis?

There are THREE main signs to look for:
(1) Weakness of the legs - slowness in walking, a wobbly gait, or a tendency to lose balance or fall over.
(2) Vomiting or dry retching.
(3) Difficulty in breathing, or a change in the breathing pattern.
(Important: Sometimes only ONE of these three signs is present, sometimes two, sometimes all three.)

If you see one or more of these signs, SEARCH your animals body for a tick. Search the whole body, but especially the head and neck areas, including around the ears. If you find a tick then your pet almost certainly has tick paralysis. You may find a little hole in the skin, like a crater or a small scab. This could be the place where a tick has been, in which case the problem is still likely to be tick paralysis. Or you may not find anything. However, if it is the right time of the year for ticks, and you are in a tick area, then it still could quite easily be tick paralysis. Ticks can be very difficult to find on an animal. If in doubt contact a veterinarian.

3. How can I recognize a paralysis tick?

Depending on where you are, Ixodes may be confused with other ticks common in that area. In northern NSW and Qld this would include the Cattle tick (Boophilus microplus) which is usually found only on cattle but may occasionally attach to dogs or other animals.

More commonly, in the coastal areas of NSW and Old, it is confused with the Bush Tick (Haemaphysalis longicomis) which is common on cattle, horses, dogs, and other animals. The size or degree of engorgement is of no use in differentiation. The terms ‘bottle tick‘ and ‘˜shell back‘ are also meaningless and not descriptive of any one species.

Ixodes is lighter in color than the other two ticks, has longer and stronger legs, and larger mouthparts. The male is a fiat, oval, yellowish-brown tick.

The unfed female is also yellowish in color, but, as it engorges, becomes grayish with a brown line (in the shape of a shield) encircling the body. A fully engorged female tick may be 15 to 18 mm in length. Its legs are in a V shape line from its snout down the sides of its body. Of the four pairs of legs, the front and back pairs are brown, the second and third pairs paler in color. If you have difficulty identifying a tick, take the tick to a veterinary clinic and they should be able to identify it for you.

4. What do I do if I find a tick on my pet?

First - Remove the tick. The best way is to first apply to the tick by dropper or spray a suitable insecticide effective against ticks e.g. Frontline or Permoxin. Then after a few minutes grasp the tick firmly between your finger and thumb, give a firm tug, and the tick should come out. Do not use irritant substances such as turpentine, kerosene, or petrol. These will kill the tick but not make it any easier to remove. They will also cause a very nasty sore at the site of the tick bite and cause your pet unnecessary pain.If the tick is too small to grasp with your finger and thumb, use a pair of fine tweezers or Allis forceps. If by any chance the head of the tick stays in the skin scratch it out with your fingernail. The head will not inject any more poison once the body is removed, but it may cause a foreign body reaction similar to a splinter. The spot where you remove a well attached tick is likely to leave a ‘crater’ or small hole in the skin. This will heal eventually. The local effects of a tick attachment are uncomfortable, but fairly insignificant compared with the potential fatal systemic effects caused by the tick toxin throughout the body.

Second - Is the dog showing any signs of tick paralysis? If it is, you should contact a vet as soon as possible, and describe the state of your pet. The vet or vet hospital staff can advise you on how urgently you need to obtain veterinary treatment. If it is outside normal business hours, leave your pet to rest quietly while you contact a vet by phone to make the necessary arrangements. Do NOT give anything (food, water, or medication) by mouth, as an animal affected by tick paralysis cannot swallow properly. If your animal appears normal and shows no signs of tick paralysis, be aware that the toxin can still work and produce a delayed reaction even after the tick has been removed. Keep an eye on your pet for the next 24 hours and if signs of toxicity develop then contact a veterinarian.

5. When and where is my pet likely to pick up a tick?

The likelihood of tick paralysis will depend on the number of ticks active at that time in the area, specifically of adult female ticks.

WHERE:
1. Areas of natural bush land which harbor native animals, particularly bandicoots, are the most likely areas. However an animal may be at risk anywhere close to such an area, as ticks can be carried by other animals and dropped in areas where you might not expect to find ticks. Ticks may also possible be carried by birds, or even possibly be blown short distances on the wind.
2. Anywhere along the coastal area of eastern Australia, from far north Qld. to around Lakes Entrance in Victoria, and also along the east coast of Tasmania. In northern NSW and Queensland this area extends quite a distance inland. Ixodes holocyclus also exists in Papua-New Guinea and portions of India and Indonesia.

WHEN -The danger period is spring and early summer. However, animals living in or visiting areas of natural bush land can pick up ticks in ANY MONTH of the year. The incidence will be higher in periods of increased warmth or humidity, or in years of higher rainfall than average.


6. Do animals develop immune to the tick paralysis toxin?

Native animals which are the natural hosts of Ixodes holocyclus appear (when in their natural environment) to develop immunity to the harmful effects of the tick toxin, arid can carry large numbers of ticks without ill effect.Dogs and cats which live in areas where they regularly pick up ticks will also tend to develop their own immunity. This depends on them getting small doses of tick toxin initially, not enough to cause severe illness, but enough to start the production of antibodies by the animal’s immune system. As they pick up more ticks and are injected by gradually increasing doses of toxin this immunity can become quite strong. Unfortunately this immunity is not long lasting and can be lost from one season to the next if there are no ticks on the animal in the time between. A previously immune dog can therefore suddenly become affected by tick paralysis. Owners should be aware of this risk.Owners are also commonly misled by the fact that a dog frequently carries ticks of the genus Haemaphysalis (Bush Ticks) which resemble Ixodes to some degree but do not inject a toxin. These dogs may have no immunity at all to the Ixodes toxin and can easily be affected by tick paralysis.Dogs or cats which have been given Anti-Tick Serum as treatment for tick paralysis should not be expected to have any increased immunity after treatment.


7. How effective is treatment of tick paralysis?

Some animals which are only mildly affected may recover without treatment by a veterinarian. However to leave an animal untreated is taking a risk with the life of the animal. If you are thinking of NOT treating, at least contact a veterinary clinic for advice and preferably have the animal examined by a veterinarian. Veterinary treatment will significantly improve the chances of survival of any affected animal. However some will die even with the best treatment. The ones which die usually have had a larger amount of toxin injected than normal (as occurs if more than one tick is present) or have been left too long and become severely ill before the owner presents the pet for treatment. Very young and very old animals also tend to be more severely affected, or animals suffering from any other disease or stress at the same time. In my early years of treating dogs and cats with tick paralysis I had 41 deaths out of 415 cases presented (10.1%) over a three year period. In later years I got this down to 36 deaths out of 691 treated (5.2%) over a six year period.In every case the more severely the animals were when presented for treatment, the higher the mortality rate. Treatment of animals showing only mild wobbliness of the legs was 100% successful, with no failures. The most seriously affected group (animals which were paralyzed and unable to lift their head at time of presentation for treatment) had a 36% mortality rate despite treatment. However we still saved 64% of these severely affected animals, all of which would certainly have died without treatment.


8. What do I need to do after my pet has been treated for tick paralysis?

Depending on the severity of toxicity, your dog may have required a stay in Hospital for tick poisoning caused by Paralysis Tick. At the time of going home, the dog may be walking and breathing normally and appear outwardly normal, or alternatively may still be showing some of the signs of tick paralysis (e.g. paralysis or leg weakness).

In either case, the following instructions are VERY IMPORTANT:

(1) FOOD & WATER: Tick poisoning prevents the dog from swallowing properly. Food or water given too early may cause choking, coughing, or inhalation pneumonia which can be fatal. Unless the dog has already been eating or drinking in Hospital, we recommend the following:
(a) The first 24 hours offer water only, in small amounts. If vomiting or coughing occurs, stop offering water.
(b) The second day you can offer soft easy to swallow foods in small amounts. a little often is better than one big meal. If coughing or occurs, stop. In any case the pet’s total food intake should not exceed half of its normal daily food intake, at this stage.
(c) The third day, if there have been no problems, return to normal daily feeding and make water freely available.

(2) PROGRESSION OF SIGNS: When a dog is first treated with Tick Hyperimmune Serum, there is a time lag before it becomes effective, so that the pet’s condition may still deteriorate for a day or more following initial treatment. After this it will normally stabilize or start to recover. Following a stay in Hospital of 24 hrs or more, when a pet is sent home it should not get any worse than it is at the time of discharge from Hospital. lf it does get any worse, for example if it has greater difficulty walking, or starts coughing or vomiting, you should contact your veterinarian as soon as possible.

(3) SEARCH FOR MORE TICKS: Although veterinary and nursing staff search every pet thoroughly for ticks while it is in Hospital, it is impossible to guarantee that one may not be missed. It is also possible for a dog to pick up more ticks as soon as it goes home. You should search the coat thoroughly for ticks every day and remove any you find, if you find any large ones (over 2 mm long), call your vet.

(4) AVOID STRENUOUS EXERCISE OR UNNECESSARY EXCITEMENT: For up to 2 months after suffering from Tick paralysis, your pets body will be slowly recovering from the effects of the poison, even though outwardly it may seem to have made a quick recovery. Its heart, lungs, muscles, and nerves will not be as strong as they were before the disease. Recovery is gradual, and given time, should be complete without any permanent after-effects. However it is important to avoid strenuous exercise or excitement, especially in the first few days. Taking a dog for a long run, for example, could cause a heart attack. We suggest confinement and rest for the first few days, and avoidance of serious exercise (as with working dogs) for four to six weeks.

(5) PREVENT RE-INFESTATION WITH TICKS: Following treatment for Tick poisoning, you might expect your pet to develop an immunity, but the passive short term immunity (a few days) conferred by the serum prevents the development of any long term effective immunity. During the two-month recovery period, the pet is actually more susceptible to another bout of Tick Poisoning if an adult female Paralysis tick attaches and injects her poison. Therefore it is important to keep ticks off your pet especially during this period.

How to protect your dog from tick paralysis
(6) SEEK EARLY TREATMENT: Remember that if an animal is affected by tick poisoning, the earlier treatment is given the higher will be the pet’s chance of survival. Contact your vet immediately if the signs of paralysis reoccur.

some of these are mainly AKC focused. - pitchick


Abdomen: The body cavity between the hindquarters and the chest.

Abortifacients: Drugs used to induce abortion.

Abscess: Swollen or enflamed area of body tissue, usually accompanied with pus.

Acalasia: A defect in the line from the esophagus to the diaphragm in which there is a pocket where food and liquid lodge and are never digested.

Acarus: A parasitic mite that can cause mange.

Acetabulum: Socket of the hipbone that holds the femur (thigh bone).

Achilles tendon: Most prominent, longest, and strongest tendon in the dog, provides an anchor and extension for the calf muscle onto the fibular tarsal bone.

Acne: Inflammation of the skin glands caused by dirt entering the glands.

Acromegaly: Disease of the pituitary gland in which a tumor causes overproduction of growth hormone resulting in gigantism.

Action: The way a dog walks, trots or run.

Acupuncture: Ancient Chinese medical practice of inserting sharp needles at specific points in the body to alleviate pain or uncomfortable condition.

A.D.: Agility dog.

Addison’s disease: Hypoadrenocorticism, hormonal deficiency especially of the adrenocortical hormones most common among young to middle-aged dogs.

Aclenocarcinoma: Deadly malignant tumor that originates in the cells which form a gland that quickly spreads throughout the entire body.

Adenoma: Benign tumor, or non-inflammatory growth usually found in the mammary glands.

‘Adonis‘: English setter that was the first dog registered in the American Kennel Club’s stud book (1878).

Adrenal glands: Glands located near kidneys that produce adrenalin which acts upon the heart and ultimately regulate the blood pressure.

Advanced Agility Dog: Second title for agility competitions (AAD).

Afterbirth: Placenta and fetal membranes discharged from the womb after the birth of the pup.

Agalactia: Contagious viral disease that causes a decrease or stoppage of milk production in a nursing bitch.

Agility dog: First title for agility competitions (AD/A.D.)

Agility trials: Competitive sport involving man and dog in which the handler directs his/her dog through a timed obstacle course; scoring is based on faults.

Aitches: The pelvic tubers.

A.K.C.: American Kennel Club.

Alariasis: Infection caused by ingestion of flukes; the flukes mature and feed on intestinal contents.

Alarm dogs: Dogs which bark to call attention to something or someone that is out of line.

Albinism: Lack of pigmentation of the skin, hair, and irises of the eyes.

Alert: A. any dog of attention, B. racing dog that is quick out of the box.

Almond eyes: Oval-shaped eyes that are pointed at either corner.

Alopecia: Unusual loss of hair, inherited skin problem that has no treatment or cure.

Alpha: In a group of dogs, the ‘top dog,‘ is alpha; groups of dogs will also have a higher alpha which is the owner of the dogs.

Amaurosis: Condition of the German Short-haired Pointer marked by nervousness and decreased trainability. Also known as familial amaurotic idiocy.

Bench Show: Dog show where dogs are displayed on benches except during ring sessions.

Best in Show: Award given to the dog who is judged best of all breeds in a show.

Bitch: A female dog

Bitchy: When a male dog shows female characteristics

Bloom: Glossiness of coat

Bobtail: A naturally tailless dog, or a dog with a very short docked tail.

Brace: Pair of dogs

Brindle: A mixture of black hairs with brown, grey or tan.

Brisket: Front of chest between the forelegs.

Brood bitch: Female used for breeding.

CD(Companion Dog): Title earned by successfully completing novice classes at three AKC obedience trials.

CDX(Companion Dog Excellent: Title earned by successfully completing classes at three AKC obedience trials.

Ch., Champion: Title awarded to dog that has defeated a specific number of dogs in competition at AKC dog shows.

Chest: Directly under the dog, behind the forelegs.

Coupling: Part of the body between the shoulders and hips.

Crabbing: Dog that moves toward you with its body at an angle rather that straight ahead; also called side-wheeling or side-winding.

Conformation: A dog’s form, structure and shape, which should conform to the standard for each breed.

Cropping: Forming erect ears by the cutting or trimming of the ear leather.

Croup: Portion of the back directly above the hind legs before the tail.

Dam: female parent

Dewclaws: Rudimentary toes often removed shortly after birth

Dewlap: skin on the throat

Dish faced: Where the tip of the nose is higher that the stop

Dog: a. any canine, male or female b. male dog, especially when used in conjunction with bitch

Doggy: Female dog showing male characteristics, especially in weight and size.

Entropian: Complex genetic condition that results in the turning in of the upper or lower eyelid, potentially resulting in corneal ulceration.

Eyeteeth: Upper canines.

FCh., Field Champion: Title awarded to a dog who has defeated a certain number of dogs at a series of AKC competitions.

Field Trial: A competition for specific Hound or Sporting Breeds. Dogs are judged on the ability and style of finding or retrieving game.

Hews: Pendulous upper lips.

Gait: Way a dog moves.

Haw: Third eyelid.

Heat: Hocks: Joints above the pasterns of the legs.

Isabella: Fawn or light bay color.

Jaws: The two bones that frame the mouth, holding the teeth.

Kennel Cough: Respiratory disease resulting in acute coughing spasms, a.k.a. Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis.

Landseer: Black and White Newfoundland Dog.

Liver: Deep reddish brown color.

Luxation: Dislocation of an anatomical structure, i.e. lens or patella.

Match Show: An informal show at which no championship points are awarded.

Merle: Blue-gray or red gray coloring with flecks of black.

Miscellaneous Class: Competitive class of dogs who don’t formally fit into regular show classification.

Nape: The junction of the base of the skull and the top of the neck.

Obedience Trial: An event in which a dog and handler display their competence in executing specific skills such as sit, down, heel, and stay.

OTCh (Obedience Trial Champion): Title earned by a dog that has won the number of points and first place wins specified in the current obedience regulations.

Open Class: A dog show in which all dogs of all breeds, including Champions, imported dogs, and mixed breeds.

Pad: Cushioned part of the foot.

Pastern: Part of the leg below the knee in the rear legs.

Quarters: The four regions that comprise a quadruped.

Rose ear: Small drop ear that folds over the back to reveal the burr.

Scenthound: A dog that hunts primarily by scent.

Schutzhund: German-developed training regimen for protective work used world-wide, only strong, determined, and aggressive dogs perform well with Schutzhund.

Second thigh: Area of the hind quarters between the hock and the stifle.

Septum: Vertical line between the nostrils.

Show dog: Dog bred for conformation to its breed standards and shown in competition on that basis.

Sire: Male parent

Stifle: Upper joint of the rear legs which correspond to humans knees.

Stop: Point between the dogs’ eyes.

Stud: Male dog used for breeding.

TD (Tracking Dog): Title earned by a dog that has passed an AKC tracking test.

TDX (Tracking Dog Excellent): Title earned by a dog that has passed an AKC dog excellent tracking test.

Triple Champion: Dog that has won bench show, field trial, and obedience trial memberships.

UD (Utility Dog): Title earned by a dog that has won certain minimum requirement scores in utility classes as a specific number of AKC obedience trials.

UIDTIUDTX: Title earned by a dog in a AKC test that combines Utility Dog and Tracking Dog requirements.

Undershot: Front teeth (incisors) of the lower jaw overlapping beyond the front teeth of the upper jaw when the mouth is closed, i.e. bulldog skull

Vaccination: Immunization against communicable diseases.

Whelps: Weaned Puppies

Withers: Highest point of the shoulders, right behind the neck.

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